This site has evolved a bit since its inception . Initially addressing submarine technical and operational topics I have elected to address US Naval culture and the evolution of the US Navy over the last 100 years. Now I have elected to examine my family legacies one narrow topic at a time. The first characters I will examine is my Grandfather (A.C. Reynerson and his cousin William Logan Rynerson) both participants in the great American expansion during the 1850-1900 timeframe.
How ACR and WLR Embraced Their Destinies
I just watched a great u-tube interview with Anne Rice, one of my favorite writers. I feel my approach to writing may well be similar….I am rather chaotic in my work in this area, and others, and rarely know my destination in most projects be it engineering, painting, writing, woodwork, renovations, etc. This work is one of my first efforts.
WLR was thirteen years old in 1841, less than sixty years after the United States was founded (constitutional convention was convened in 1787), growing rapidly into manhood in Kentucky and later in his youth in Indiana when Horace Greely made the now iconic pronouncements. The nation had gone from powdered wigs, polite talk and tea to buckskins, whiskey, and six shooters and was rapidly expanding west at a phenomenal rate. WLR’s father moved the family from Kentucky to Hendricks County, Indiana during his formative years in order to avoid “the morally corrupting influence of the institution of slavery”. He would be a lifelong supporter of the Union and the” rule of law” although his family would find themselves split between loyalties in the approaching fury of civil war. This time of geographical and economic change impacted many young Americans and WLR in 1852, at the age of 24, walked to the West Coast via the Oregon Trail in search for gold along with so many adventurous young men. Before leaving the relative comforts of the Indiana farm lands, he attended Franklin College in Johnson County, Indiana. These studies would be the foundations for his career as a lawyer, miner, soldier, and politician in the New Mexico Territory in the future.
The Far West held tempting prospects for adventurous men, especially within the large confines of northern “New Spain” – Mexico. This region encompassed Texas, Arizona, Nevada, California, and Utah. The Spanish for three hundred years has been capable of settling only about 2500 permanent Europeans in all of New Spain which reached from Canada to Central America. Most of these Spanish settlers were clergy or garrisoned troops. Americans were to rapidly fill the failed Spanish void in the nineteenth century. Consequently, government in the huge Mexican outposts barely existed except in California, and an ambitious man of any nationality could purchase a land grant, and with sufficient industry and panache, make himself the rough-and-ready lord of all he surveyed. Ironically, WLR would one day marry the daughter of such an adventurer, Julian Pope the original land grant owner of what now is Pope Valley, just north of the world renowned wine region of Napa Valley, California. Pope was sold the grant in 1841 for twenty-five cents and became the sole owner of the entire region. Ironically he was imprisoned for being an illegal alien by the same Mexican governor in San Diego in 1830, subsequently released by intervention of a merchant sea captain upon hearing of his plight.
I had the pleasure in May 2006 to interview the grandson of Luciana Pope Lemon Rynerson in Las Cruses, New Mexico, and gained insight into the history of the relationship between Luciana Pope and WLR. This will be discussed in some detail later. Now back to the California ‘49ers and WLR’s adventures in the Golden State.
AC Reynerson as a young man.
Many FACTS PART
This project addressing the adventures of my paternal grandfather, A.C Rynerson (Reynerson or Reinerson …all family spellings among others) and his cousin William Logan Rynerson has been in my mind for over 20 years. I attended a family reunion over the decades and for some reason William Logan, hereafter referred to as WLR, was discussed in rather hushed tones about well explored by my cousins, of which I have many, many. I had the opportunity in the 1980s to spend time on consulting and work assignments in Santa Fe, New Mexico , the center of much of WLR’s life in the latter half of the 1800’s. So, I enjoyed not only the magnificent countryside of Northern New Mexico and its exquisite cuisine, art galleries, and rainbow culture, but also the archives in this the oldest capital in the USA.
I read many notes, documents and book excerpts about WLR and found he was a lawyer, rancher, and businessman of some renown after he mustered out of the Union Army and made New Mexico his home. He came to New Mexico as an Army Officer with the California Column which secured the territory from the Confederation and ran them back to Texas after the victory at Glorietta Pass in .Of note, he was a state legislator, avid politician and the DA in Lincoln County during the infamous Lincoln County wars. WLR also was one of the founders of what now is New Mexico State University in Las Cruses…a monument on the university’s grounds so attests. The dark little secret perhaps the cousins could not discuss is that WLR in a gunfight in killed the Chief Justice of The NM Territorial Supreme Court in what is now the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe ….ahhhhhhh…….but acquitted of the deed. He was a part of the wild west in the fullest sense. WLR was a man of his times in every sense of the phrase……Wild NM circa 1875……the times of Wyatt Earp, Billy the Kid and Doc Holiday.
William Rynerson was born on February 22, 1828 in Mercer County, Kentucky. He attended Franklin College in Indiana and then joined the gold rush to California in 1852. When the American Civil War started, Rynerson enlisted in the army and arrived in New Mexico as a part of the “California Column”. He was mustered out as a “Brevet Colonel”.
In November 1866 he was mustered out of the Union Army at La Mesilla and began living in Las Cruses (The Crosses). New Mexico. At this time he was reported to be almost seven feet tall. On December 15, 1867, Rynerson shot and killed the Chief Justice of the Territory of New Mexico, John P. Slough in what is now the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe. He was acquitted in court however on grounds of self-defense.
The W.L. Rynerson Family La Mesilla circa 1878.
Who is on the porch ?
On December 22, 1872, Rynerson married Luciana Lemon at La Mesilla. Her husband had been killed in a political riot a few years before and Rynerson was a close friend. Her maiden name was Pope and her father was a large landholder in Northern California. Pope was actually imprisoned by the Mexican Governor as an illegal alien later—-released and given a large land grant in what today is the heart of the most productive wine region in America. The area now known as Pope Valley was originally named for the Indians who lived there, the Wappos. The first white settler in Pope Valley was Julian Pope, from whom the valley derived its name. Born in Kentucky, as a young man he moved to Mexico where he lived as a hunter and trapper.
In 1830, he visited the Mexican town of San Diego for the purpose of procuring supplies and was arrested because he had violated the Mexican law by entering their county without a passport. He was confined for about a year, when the captain of an American merchant ship which had entered the port, heard of Pope’s plight and prevailed upon the Mexican officials to release him.
In 1836, he emigrated with his family to Los Angeles and in 1841 he obtained a land grant (The Locallome land grant) to what is now Pope Valley from the Mexican government, and brought his family to Napa County. The grant was approximately six miles long and three miles wide. Julian and his family built an adobe homestead and named it Rancho Locallome. The governor signed his grant, affixed the government seal, Julian Pope paid the twenty-five cent fee and became the owner of Pope Valley.
The earliest recorded settler to arrive in Pope Valley was in 1843. The main industry in Pope Valley was raising stock, cattle, horses, sheep & hogs being the principal sources of income. Grizzly bears were the worst pest to which the stockmen had to contend. The bears would come into the fields and corrals and kill the young livestock. They were numerous till the 1870’s.
Pope Valley is an unincorporated community located in the small valley of the same name in northern Napa County, California. It is east of Calistoga, north of Angwin, and borders Lake Berryessa, the second largest man-made lake in California. The zip code for Pope Valley is 94567, and the area code 707. It was home to many farming and ranching families.
Pope Valley is the home of Aetna Springs Resort, a Registered Historic Place. Pope Valley was named after William (Julian) Pope who was granted property in Rancho Locoallomi in 1841 by acting Governor Manuel Jimeno.
They had two children together and a stepchild by Lemon.
In January 1878 Rynerson was appointed by Governor Sam Axtell as district attorney for the third judicial district (Doan Ana, Lincoln and Grant counties). Being a member of the Santa Fe ring, and now also being a district attorney, he was in control of all of Dona Ana County. In 1878 Rynerson was reappointed As District Attorney. He was good friends with L.G. Murphy, J.J. Dolan and J. H. Riley and helped then as all he could in the “Lincoln County War”.
A.C. Rynerson (Reynerson we find he did change to this spelling later in life) came into this wild setting about 1874 supported we must assume by WLR. He started as a merchant in the silver town of Galeyville, AZ. Brooks White wrote the excellent, well referenced history of Galeyville and he content has provided much information concerning ACRs highly probable residence as a founder and merchant in this silver town located Southeast of Tombstone , AZ. This town reminds me of the setting of the excellent HBO TV series Deadwood…as does the town of Tombstone. Mr. White actually bought the town and excavated it as we would a precious archeological site with well documented findings. A thorough job I must point out. Please see the reference list for particulars addressing this excellent book. I did talk briefly with Mr. White a few years ago while in Tucson looking for documents in the state historical records -talked by phone.
We found two important clues that my grandfather was in the Tombstone area when the Earp brothers were establishing themselves there circa 1875. The Tombstone Epitaph ran ads for AC Rynerson stage lines and WLR upon marrying Luciana Pope Lemon was also marrying into a stage business owned by her deceased ex spouse John Lemon. We interviewed her grandson in Las Cruses and gained some insight into this marriage. Seems reasonable WLR staked ACR in the stage business in the Tombstone area. We do see from old maps that Southern New Mexico and Southern Arizona were essentially geographically the same area.
I also found in Brooks White’s book on Galeyville, circa 1875, that Curly Bill Brocious and Johnny Ringo among other gunfighters of that era and local hung out in Galeyville. A picture of the walls of “outlaw cave” in White’s book is an inscription “Mrs. AC Rynerson”. The cave was a place locals frequented near Galeyville. I will scan and enclose this picture in these preface notes. Galeyville was a refuge from the Earps and law in Tombstone. It also was the site of a silver mine reportedly to be “sweetened” to entice investors….a common practice even today. When the mines closed so did Tombstone and Galeyville and AC departed to his home in the East. He may have attended to the stage line in the Tombstone area but eventually after gaining his fortune went home as did many in that era.
Galeyville was named after John H. Galey, originally a Pennsylvania oil man and then the president of the Texas Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. The post office was established on January 6, 1881 with a population of about 400. The town had a smelter that was later moved to Benson. The mining boom was short and when it died Galeyville became a reputed haven for outlaws such as Curly Bill Brocious and John Ringo who moved there after law and order was established in Tombstone. They used the surrounding canyons to hold cattle while altering the brands. In 1888 the San Simon Cattle Company forced out squatters, and the remains of the buildings were carried away to construct homes in nearby Paradise. This was the common practice in the west, moving building from one location to another.
All that remains of Galeyville is a sign that says “Established 1881, Population 400.
Galeyville’s post office was established January 6, 1881 and discontinued May 31, 1882. Named after John H. Galey, who was an oil man from Texas, this town had a smelter which was later moved to Benson, AZ. Galeyville only lasted 2 years and had quite a reputation for being a hangout for outlaws, especially Curly Bill Brocious. It is uncertain whether the mines played out or Galey got in over his head, but he made good on his debts and the town died. The smelter was moved to Benson and the buildings to Paradise and Galeyville, for having once had 500 residents, was no more.
La Fonda Hotel Santa Fe, NM 2011
Brochure on La Fonda – from the front desk 2011.
Map USA Circa 1876 from Custer Museum , Wyoming 2010
I WILL SUPPORT this offering with an extensive reference list that the reader can explore at his or her leisure. This work is a mix of fact …well documented…and docudrama in order to keep the narrated fresh and interesting, hopefully. WLR and ACR lived in exciting and challenging times and survived to leave a great family legacy to be proud of…..both of them.
AC it is surmised moved back to the upper mid-west, married and had four children by Rosie Reynerson……I have met as a youngster all four. It is told by the ancestors of these four AC was very non-communicative about his early years and disappeared for a few weeks at times and whereabouts were unknown generally speaking. Brooks White in his excavations seems to point to a merchantman with s spouse and o child. Possibly AC….we know of the inscription in the cave and I surmise he had a common-law wife and possibly a child. He after Rosie died married my Grandmother Linnie Wester Reynerson and built a great home in Hope Arkansas circa…….picture below. For that time it was a fine home and I lived there early 1950s with my immediate family and a few cousins. It was no small place. So, AC was a railroad conductor – see picture below and somehow found the resources to build a home that today would be very expensive……..I contend the silver town Galeyville provided with the wherewithal to do this and Rosie was his second spouse and Lennie his third. He and Lennie had six children, my father being one of the six. SO AC may well have had three spouses and eleven children with ten surviving to adulthood. We still continue to search for more documentation in the New Mexico and Arizona records to substantiate these wanderings. The records and historical record concerning WLR is extensive recognizing he made Mesilla, NM his home and was a successful lawyer, miner, rancher and businessman in his day. AC simply made his fortune and took it back home and fathered a fairly large brood(s).
The primary characters will be ACR AND WLR of course but I WILL let the plot and characters evolve as the work is approached. I am also researching the expansion of the USA West circa 1800-1900. This was the time of great expansion, Manifest Destiny, the rape of our indigenous people
The economic and political forces loose in America during this century shaped WLR and ACR and thus their legacies and families to this day.
The gun, and the sharp swords of our “Conquistadores” over 400 years built this nation and young men from the East 1800 to 1900 played a key role, actually a vital role in this development. Many Americans today really do not grasp the magnitude of the risks taken by the Spaniards in the 1400s that opened up the New World to the Europeans. The Catholic Monarchs in Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella brought the sparing regions of Spain, Castalia and Aragon, together and then tossed the Moors back across the Straights of Gibraltar into Morocco. They actually conducted the only successful crusade in modern times. The Muslim world to this day has not forgiven nor forgotten. Have visited the place where these two were married in .It is located in a field Northwest of Madrid, Spartan as they were in a simple ceremony. They had to be about Gods business and with the sword and courage certainly did so.
My daughter lives in a small town near Madrid and I have visited there and spent no small amount of time contemplating the astonishing feats of these two Spaniards. Also recall Katherine of Aragon, their daughter, was Henry VIII s first wife and the Queen that refused him a divorce and thus the split in the Catholic Church that caused to this day wars and civil disturbance in the European arena. These Spaniards were tough, dedicated, disciplined warriors in the best sense of the times. Today visit two places of great significance in this continuing struggle between Muslims and Christians in Spain, Granada and El Escorial. The Spanish built a magnificent monastery at El Escorial and all the Spanish monarchs over the past 500 years are buried there in magnificent vaults in gold encrusted coffins stacked high. ALL but Ferdinand and Isabella…..the monarch that defeated the Muslims. They were buried in the Alhambra in Granada and later moved to a Catholic Church also in Granada still in plain wood coffins facing Morocco. This is magnificently symbolic in every sense of the concept.
All that aside, the Catholic Monarchs elected to send another Spaniard (the Italians still do not have the DNA infested memo) to eht West with three ships loaded with Conquistadores – we today would refer to them as US Marines. The goal was to find that precious metal that served as the currency of the world…..GOLD. They found it in abundance and massive amounts of silver. The Caribbean floor is littered with the galleons sunk by storms and pirated bellies full of gold and silver. Spain, consequently ruled the European continent for a century thereafter.
New Spain after this handful of warriors secured the indigenous people stretched from Canada to Central America and from Kansas to the Pacific. The Spaniards lost much of this because there were too few to hold the lands. A very similar thing happened to the Dutch when the British took over the mid-Atlantic areas of North America. There were too few Dutch to hold the lands…..thus New Amsterdam became New York and New Spain became the Western USA.
After this bit of history prior to 1800 if we examine the Westward expansion from the Mississippi Valley to the Pacific Coast we see the immediate forces that drove WLR and ACR to California, Arizona and New Mexico.
I refer here to an excellent reference (on the list herein) “A Country of Vast Designs – James K. Polk, The Mexican War, and the Conquest of The American Continent” by Robert W. Merry. Merry explores James Knox Polk’s presidency, 1845- 1849, with details that address the political intrigues that even today permeates the decisions made at the highest levels of American Government. Polk promised to serve only one term which he did and died four months after he departed office. A protégé of Andrew Jackson , Polk was a determined leader that foresaw a United States consuming all the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from 54-40 to Mexico. The United States annexed Texas (1845), California Territories (1848) and Oregon Territory (1846), essentially one third of the USA as we know it today in under thirty-six months all under Polk’s term in office. The main characters of this offering were born in this era, went West during the 185-1870 period and made their fortunes, both starting from the hard scrabble wilds of Indiana and Kentucky.
Polk had one overwhelming trait…he was convinced he was a man of destiny and fully embraced the doctrine of “Manifest Destiny” so well fostered by his mentor Andrew Jackson. Polk as did Jackson abhorred the very thought of concentrated power in Washington, which he believed would lead inevitably to corruption and invidious governmental actions favoring the connected and powerful at the expense of ordinary Americans(seems one of the issue we still discuss 170 years later) . Jackson wanted political power to be diffuse and as close to the people as possible. This is in essence why this nation entered into a civil war circa 1861-1865 and not as popularly (for political gain) felt today the issue of slavery. Henry Clay was Jackson’s nemesis and wanted a system he referred to as “The American System” to underwrite a collection of Federal Programs and policies he considered essential to American prosperity. Jackson and Clay’s two outlooks would drive political events surrounding nearly all the major issues of their day: protective tariffs, the Bank of The United States, public works, public lands, and ultimately American Expansion into Texas, New Mexico, Oregon and California. Polk won the battles, America stretched coast-to-coast, but as we see today much of the war against central government is lost…—..in the author’s opinion in 2013 we are entering a very dangerous period whereas our freedoms we have fostered for 400 years are being lost in the movement toward some dysfunctional concept of “egalitarian utopia” and an era of “ME- ME/FEELS GOOD DO IT” that followed the 1970s. The divisions we embrace today are based essentially in the 1970s post Viet Nam when common cause and the fraternity of USA was essentially destroyed. We are in a very dangerous time reminiscent of Germany(Europe) circa 1935.
The first annexation under Polk was Texas, an interesting case to explore. We must recognize in 1845 Texas was hard scrabble ranch land in the West primarily and tied in the East to cotton and slaves. Oil did not exist but later became the wealth mainspring that has led the now-state to prosperity. In 1845 many Americans (not Texans .most Texans wanted Statehood with all the advantages including primarily protection from Mexico) did not want the economic burden that Texas was. Without the large oil reserves coupled to the industrial revolution Texas would have remained a tremendous burden to the United States.
Mexico established its independence from Spain in 1821 and started to address a problem that had plagued “New Spain” for many generations. Recognize the conquest of the Indians was driven by a few Conquistadores with horses and swords – weapons of war the Indians had never seen before. Hispanics today are mostly of Indian blood and a minimal amount of Spanish genetics. The Spaniards to this day are not prone to intermarry with non-pure blooded Europeans but maintain strict economic and political control over the populations in Mexico and much of South America. The problem in 1821 was a severe shortage of Spaniards and the rulers were justly concerned about holding New Spain. Again recall the Dutch lost New Amsterdam to the British because too few Dutch elected to settle the new lands that stretched from Connecticut to Maryland.
To address their problem, Spain had granted large tracts of Texas land to a group headed by Moses Austin. His son Steven arrived in 1821 (WL Rynerson born in 1828 in Kentucky)and established control over 100,00 acres of arable land proceeded to sell it to settlers willing to brave the hardships of weather and Indian attacks, which were vicious and numerous continuing well into the late 1800s. Of course Austin made a fortune selling the granted lands to Americans. The new “Texans” arrived in large numbers with approximately 40,000 occupants in 1835and estimated to be over 150,000 a decade later. Regardless the land expanse was huge and today – 2013- over 50 million people live in the annexed Texas territory. Of course the “Genie” was loose and in Mexico City the Spaniards watch this influx with alarm. Also realize many pioneers from the East were flooding into the lush, inviting lands West of the Sierras into California seeking huge amounts of land in the San Joaquin valley and Northern California, gold and the massive bounties of the Pacific Ocean (fishing, furs, timber). As a well-known British historian has been quoted, “If America had been discovered from the West Coast the East Coast would still be a wilderness”.
Mexico foresaw a huge cultural chasm as the newly arrived Texans rejected loyalty to Mexico and cast their allegiance to their ethnic brothers in the United States. We see the same issue turned upside down in the influx of millions of Mexicans back into the Southwest today. In 1830, Mexico tried to stop the wave but it was just too massive to counter….again as we see on our Southern borders today, 2013. As feared in 1836 the Texas immigrants declared their independence and defeated Santa Ana in his attempts to bring the evolving Republic to heel. Three significant battles – the Alamo, Goliad, San Jacinto – inscribed the cultural struggle into the consciousness of the two peoples on both banks of the Rio Grande.
Henry Clay of North Carolina best put the Texas Annexation issue in perspective. “Mexico has not abandoned, but perseveres in, the assertion of her rights by actual force of arms, which if suspended, are intended to be renewed. Hence if the United States acquitted Texas, it would also acquire its (Texas’) war with Mexico. Annexation and war with Mexico are identical”. There was a concept at this time that in the looming war between The Republic of Texas and Mexico. The United States would be drawn to protect Texas…..well, actually more than a cloak room concept. Texas went to was with Mexico in 1836, Texas entered the Union in 1845 and the United States went to war with Mexico in 1846 And California Territory was acquired from Mexico in 1848. Seems definitely to have been a very well executed strategy if you were a expansionist hell bent to fulfill the doctrine of “Manifest Destiny”.
A review of the actual motivations of the westward expansion is also the examination of the actions, emotions, motivations, and documentation addressing the unnamed thousands, maybe hundreds of thousands, of individuals who compose the living flesh and blood of history. Historians focus on leaders but most of what occurs of real importance is the compilation of deeds of the common folk. It is the unnoticed thousands on foot (WLR as reported) and on horseback, in wagons and ox carts, who made the stories fact. They were the real history with their feet and hands, their personal needs and greed, their blood, their sweat and sacrifices bred in depravation and often death.
The westward expansion or the “Manifest Destiny” expansion has been called a great folk movement by some historians, in which mostly the people led and the government (WDC) followed. The people made the deeds of history happen….arguably made most inevitable. Driving the American expansion (also as we see today in the expansion of Latinos in the Southwest) is a phenomenon termed “ The American Procreation Table”……..large American families begot large families, doubling population every twenty years. One British minister proclaimed; “Americans won victories not on the battlefield but in the bedchamber”. In 1800 there were only sixteen states and by 1824 there would be twenty-four.
The area ceded by Mexico to the United States in 1848 (minus any Texas claims) consisted of the present day states of California, Nevada, Utah, half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, less than half of Colorado, and less than half of southwest Wyoming. WL Rynerson went from Kentucky to California in 1852. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo sealed the ceded lands into the United States. The small acquisition of the Gladsden Purchase (southern Arizona mostly) in 1854 (the year of AC Rynerson’s birth) completed the Western expansion of Spanish lands. Because there was no good route for a railroad from the Texas gulf ports because of the Rocky Mountains, the USA negotiated the purchase. In fact the purchase was also a part of Confederate planning to possibly secure California as a future Pacific Coast Confederate state. That plan was never consummated and the California Column tossed the Texans out of Eastern New Mexico in 1864(and WL Rynerson arrived in New Mexico Territory with the California Column). Today we note not only the plains that host Interstate Highway 10 along the Mexican border from Texas to California, but the railroad and utility corridor afforded by the Gladsden Purchase. The acquisition of Oregon Territory in 1846 from Britain completed the fulfillment of the goals of the American leaders in the name of “Manifest Destiny”.
For completeness I will briefly explore the history of the acquisition of Oregon Territory in 1846 from Britain (includes what is today Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming). – A most beautiful and productive part of America.
Here for background is an excerpt from a book we all should read. It sets the mood of Europeans both in the USA and Europe in the early-mid nineteenth century:
New Netherlands Circa 1660
“Milwaukee, May 10, 1847
“Dear Mother-in-law, Brother-in-law and Sisters-in-law
“It is now high time that I reach for the pen myself … One beholds here how the farmer lives without worries. … In Germany no one knows how to appreciate the liberty to which every human being is entitled by birth, only here in America can he experience it. Here the farmer may speak as freely as the nobleman and the scholar, everyone may express his opinion in accordance with his knowledge and judgment, for all the laws depend upon the people, and all the officials as well; that is, the people get together and elect them the way the burgomasters are elected in Germany, and they receive no more remuneration than they need for a reasonably good living. There is a tremendous difference, here the officials and priests are dependent upon the people, and in Germany the people are dependent upon the officials and priests. The preachers’ trade is a poor business here, they have to toil at it in the sweat of their brows.
“I also want to write something to you about the Mexican War, it might frighten you somewhat if you should hear something about it and that without any definite basis. It is just about as far from here as it is from here to you, in keeping with liberty there is no compulsion to join in the war, only those who join voluntarily for pay. There were recently recruited again in the United States ten regiments, in the course of which two companies were shipped out from here also, one German and one American, they go directly to the capture of the capital of Mexico. Everyone receives nine dollars and board, and when he comes back again 160 acres of land, or if he is shot to death and has wife and children or parents they get it, if these are in Germany then they get half the value of the land sent to Germany. They believe that the Americans will win the war against the Mexicans very soon, for they have already conquered some of the major fortresses, whereby the American armies, which include many Germans, proved themselves very valiant. Many a German has lost his life in this wonderful region of Mexico. A great deal of money has been collected in the United States (and still is) to give partial support to the unfortunate poor Europeans.
“You cannot imagine how much flour and wheat is already being produced in this young state [of Wisconsin]. A great deal of this flour (packed in light barrels) goes to Europe, I believe most of it remains in the Netherlands, Ireland and France. For here there is most excellent wheat land, and it will become one of the best states in America, and Milwaukee is and remains the first city in the state, for it already numbers 12,000 inhabitants. The property of people who bought places for themselves here three years ago and built thereon rises tremendously in value and likewise the land. …
“Well dear friends, if you want to decide upon this important step, then the sooner you do it the better. … You do not need any passports.”
Author: Thomas C. Cochran
Title: The Pabst Brewing Company
Publisher: Literary Licensing, LLC
Date: Copyright 1948 by New York University
We see after reading the above, the real incentives for Europeans to migrate to the American West and many came not via the Eastern states overland, but by sea via the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific ports. Texas for instance had large German settlements located in what is now “Hill country” near Austin and Fredericksburg. German was actually until WWII the first language in this area and is still heard in the restaurants and homes in the area today.
Wilderness and Dream’in
“Do not lounge in the cities! There is room and health in the country, away from the crowds of idlers and imbeciles. Go West, before you are fitted for no life but that of the factory”. “If you have no family or friends to aid you, turn your face to The Great West and there build up your home and fortune.” Both quotations are by the Editor of the New York Tribune in 1841, Horace Greeley.
JEFFERSON had seen up close the squalor and ghettos of Europe and wanted much more for Americans. He abhorred the vision of Americans confined to the narrow strip of the colonies on the East Coast dependent on European exploitation via finance and trade centered in London, Amsterdam and Paris. Thus his quest for Westward expansion, underwritten by Lewis and Clark and the Louisiana Purchase. He then passed the mantel to Jackson and then Jackson to Polk.
For some in the Rynerson clan hemmed into the confines of the Midwest after many earlier adventures in New Amsterdam, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, the lure of the West was just too much. Horace Greeley had the intended influence on young William as he considered “going West young man” in the summer of 1854. The hills of Northern California were teaming with prospectors who were getting rich with just a shovel, gun, and a lot of savvy in a tough land. The risks were high but the rewards even more so, or so the back East newspapers readers were told. The lure of gold, silver and eventually oil would build a young, restless nation and the fortunes of many American families for many generations. So William could hardly be blamed for pulling up stakes and afoot heading into the great adventure with thousands of others.
William’s father was a transplant from the areas near Boonville, Kentucky and moved to Indiana because of a need to sooth a restlessness that was a part of many young men of that time. Also because of the laws of inheritance of the time the first bourn male inherited essentially all the worldly possessions of the deceased male and the second and subsequent males and women were left to fend for themselves. Many departed to the American West for much better opportunity. America was a strongly classed society based on the European model. The French cry for “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” was certainly not heard in the United States and is not today. So many dispossessed Americans took advantage of the Western expansion and under the political mantra of “Manifest Destiny” found their fortunes. Young William was well motivated to make the long walk to the goldfields of Northern California.
“Billy, get your ass over here and clean out the lower stalls”, Ma Rynerson bellowed over the noise of the barnyard in their small home stake . “You lazy lout, you eat more than six hogs on a good day” she spewed in his general direction. Young William indeed ate like a horse and at already well over six feet was a really big kid for his age. Mama gave no quarter and with five growing kids to feed and frontier reality was a burden most of the Low Dutch faced continually. The family, now in Indiana, came originally from New Amsterdam, settling on the Island of Manhattan in 1620. The Knickerbocker Dutch were tight knit and intermarried mostly. So all of the Dutch seemed to know most others regardless of where they migrated toward and that was at that time, 1840, West steadily. They followed Boone to Kentucky and made the trek down the Wilderness Trail steadily Westward with many other hardy souls looking for a better life than that offered by the highly classed East Coast.
“OK, Mama, I am a’commin, but there is only an hour of daylight left, and we have wolves in the area”. “ I do not give a shit Billy, you should have done them stalls earlier today ‘stead of squirrel hunt’in all afternoon….and nothing to show for it…..’nutin”. The old lady had loss most civility long ago and she made young William’s life a hell on Indiana soil. ‘course his Grandmother was ‘bout the same…..probably just in the blood. The sooner he could get out of the prison she created the better he was certain. And, the call of the West was strong for all youngsters in the 1840’s. Gold, silver open plains, magnificent mountains and the great Pacific were all there for the taking if you were tough and smart it could be for the asking. Much better than the hard scrabble confines of the East.
It was late Fall in the upper Midwest and the sun set early and rose late. Some days at these latitudes only four-five daylight and cloudy much of the time. . Depressing to say the least. Billy loaded more wood into the stack adjacent to the house and headed with rifle in tow to the stalls. The Rynersons had six stalls and several horses in need of some shelter from the wet harsh Indiana winter. He set about mucking the lower three after moving two horses out of the area. There was always a danger of wolves, panthers or on occasion bears killing stock and the farmers here were always vigilant. “Billy, get your ass back here now….you gonna take all night ?” Mama bellowed off the back porch. Get in here now we ain’t gonna wait to eat just for you”.
“Your brothers will leave nothing for you”. Billy knew this was all too true. He had gone to bed hungry many nights after working all day because he missed supper. Supper was the evening meal, dinner at noon and breakfast in the morning. He made it just in time to get a last piece of fried squirrel, some cornbread and canned beans. Mama put up tons of vegetables in jars each summer to feed her brood all winter. With the hogs, a goat or two, and a side of beef with wild game they made it through the winter. Milk was the feedstock for butter, curds and pie fillings she kept in a spring house under lock and key…….otherwise the boys would eat it all in a few months. All food on the Rynerson homestead was considered precious and with five grown boys it lasted none too long.
Ma Rynerson made all the clothes for the family mostly from feed sacks and coarse cloth as they could afford the goods. Animal skins were used for coats with a cloth liner when she could get the lining.
The one commodity they Rynersons sought with fervor was education. The value of education was a part of the Dutch heritage and all the boys went to school and a few to college for a couple of years. Ma Rynerson was intent on her sons become more than frontier farmers and trappers as so many young men had to settle for in the early 1800s. Ma Rynerson saw promise in Billy and would eventually see he went to a small local liberal arts school, Franklin College. But for now Billy was just an oversize teen dirt farmer in the making under the careful eye of Ma and Isaac Rynerson on the frontier as the family had always been for over 200 years.
Isaac had, from Kentucky, brought with him a penchant for making good whisky. The white lightning made for eons in the American Appalachians was the feed stock for what was to become fine Kentucky Bourbons. ALL whiskey is made essentially from grain mash distilled and aged in charcoal barrels (thus the dark color of bourbon and other whiskies – just dark moonshine (grain alcohol – ethanol) legally sold in order to “protect” the public). Isaac made fine whisky (double distilled in hogshead – 54 gal barrels – aged at least 18 months) and had a good business selling to locals. His distillery had been in business for ten years so he had a continuous stock of fine sipping whisky readily available for his customers. He also bred excellent horses and was the editor of the local newspaper, The Prairie Creek Gazette. He was proud of his boys and saw a real future for all in an expanding nation. Andy Jackson was on the rise and frontiersmen were his constituents (President 1829-1837)……Manifest Destiny was ingrained. He also felt a great sense of Dutch pride in that his ancestors settled Manhattan in 1620 and survived until today……with a future and a solid past.
At dinner Isaac tells Billy, “Get yourself to the paper tomorrow after school. I want you to start learning a trade and that is a good a-place to start as any”. “yessir, be thare by two o’clock”, Billy replied through a mouth full of corn and venison. ..”Yeah if’fin you don’t get tangled up with Becky Maces again Billy”, Yount chimed in. All giggled around and Billy blushed. Virgil kicked Billy under the table and the youngest, Grimes, just smiled, knowingly. Billy, sixteen but well over six feet was gangly and in early puberty was a catawampus mess…..not at all attractive, shy and a bit introverted. But he also had a temper and not even grown men were prone to cross him. One day he would be near seven feet tall and men would give him a wide berth. Billy inhaled his dinner and headed to bed to read and get ready for school in the morning. On a frontier farm the days started early chores for all, then school and work afterward, supper and more study in the Rynerson house. This was typical on the frontier….we hear all the stories of Abe Lincoln of Illinois (with a huge grain of salt) splitting rails (work or starve), reading, borrowing books, etc., etc., etc. Well this was very common given the times and paucity of schools and libraries. So much political public relations….so it was….so it goes.
“You boys, is all your chores done ?” Ma Rynerson asked to the Rynerson pride at breakfast. To a man the answer was ”Yes Mam”……better been or she might just toss them out with no breakfast. They’ed learned that long ago. Dinner (lunch) was hard bread and jam….so supper was a good twelve hours away with more work and study ‘til then. Ma Rynerson was a tough mistress and had to be on the frontier with five men….all full of “piss and vinegar” for sure. Rarely did they come back from a day at work and school without a cut or two and a bruise or black eyes. So it was in this new world of America.
She has had four other kids but lost them either in birth or to disease which was always hovering over families. Two were girls and Ma really obsessed over those losses…..a boy ….well just look at the lot. Grimes was the only one she took a ‘liken to probably because he was the baby and a bit frail…..well at fifteen only 175 lbs. and nearly six feet tall like Billy, not that frail. How her small body produced eight babies is amazing and four were massive men to be. Annie Bantra married Isaac at the age of thirteen, which was typical in those times, and stayed pregnant for most the next decade…..she now avoided Isaac accordingly – for her health mostly.
Oh, but those boys could chop wood, plough the corn and barley fields (yes for the alcohol stills), work the stills and shoot the ear off a squirrel at 100 yards….good for somethin’ ‘suppose. The five of’em kept the woodsheds full, horses groomed and root cellars overflowing most the time…..no complaints. Even in canning time they, under some duress, helped put up hundreds of jars of preserves and vegetables. They, these days, drew the line at churning butter……so Isaac got that chore in the evenings.
After school Billy ran to the printing office and strapped on an apron and presented himself for work worthy of the owner’s son……Isaac was out back playing cards and imbibing some fine bourbon and when Billy showed he put him to work……”Billy, get your butt down to the outhouse and clean the place up….ain’t been done in a year”… well short work of the fantasy of “trust fund baby” Rynerson. “And, I be there after this hand to give you some toilet clean’in , teach’in….the boys all laughed so hard one fell off his chair…..into the Indiana dust so abundant in Virgo County……hot, dusty, humid and buggy. Billy was sent back three times until Isaac was satisfied……he’d been needing that done for a month of Sundays. Afterwards he did spend time with Billy explaining type setting….printing in those days in a small town paper was hands on, labor intensive and actually much appreciated by the townsfolk.
WRITERS AID….HISTORIC TIMELINE
1803 Louisiana Purchase from France
1804-1806 Lewis & Clark Expedition – chartered by Thomas Jefferson
1819 Florida Acquired from Spain
1821 Mexico declares independence from Spain
1828…WLR Born in Kentucky
1834 Franklin College Founded – Indiana
1836 Isaac moves to Indiana, Virgo County
1845 Texas Annexation and James Polk of Tennessee becomes President.
1846 Oregon Territory Acquired from Great Britain
1848 California + Acquired From Mexico (Spain)
1849 Gold Discovered In California
1849-1852 WLR attends Franklin College in Indiana
1852 WLR “walks” to CA Gold Fields
1854 AC Born in
1854 Gladsden Purchase from Mexico
1861 Civil War Starts
1865 WLR Musters out Of Fed Army in New Mexico
He completed his chores at the paper and sat a while reading the daily edition…..full of stories about the states’ rights battles (and slavery), possible Texas annexation and the impending war with Mexico. The country was exploding and kids like Billy and his brothers were itch ‘in to get into the action. Of course Isaac wanted to keep them home as long as possible to work his stills, paper and the homestead……they grew up so fast, full of piss – fueled by the Eastern journalists and the need to be on their own. Isaac also valued education and wanted all the boys to have some college…..not an easy chore on the frontier….but he was determined. Billy would be finished with all the “book learning’” available in Virgo County in a few months and Isaac wanted him to enroll in newly founded (1834) Franklin College near Virgo County. He well knew the pull of the Western expansion and the silver and gold findings in New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and California……the motivation to stay in rural Indiana was slim at best for a young man in the mid-nineteenth century in Midwest America. He wanted his sons to get as much classroom time as possible before they left home…….and he wanted those free labor hours they provided to his businesses. Maybe one or two of the boys would stay and carry on the legacy he had built by hard work and tenacity since the family left Kentucky in 1830. He knew Billy would not be one of them……and he could not “stake” him to his impending adventure…….he would be on his own.
“Isaac, where the hell is Billy, get him in here to clean the bedrooms. His turn and he gets no supper if ‘in he don’t get it done”, bellowed Ma. “I jest killed four chickens and hung off the clothes line for dinner…….need one of the boys to get’em plucked and gutted NOW”. “I’m a’comm’in Ma”, yelled Billy as he ran in the back door. He thought….only two more weeks and I will be outa here and in Franklin……and I saved all the money I need for two years, given I can work some on the side. And right now I want to clean house and not gut chickens…..been there lots, done it too often. Ma and Isaac expected the boys to save for school and pay for all their clothes and nonsense stuff like whisky and girls. For Billy girls were not a part of his life yet and he got bourbon on occasion from the family distillery. He really liked good whisky and it would be his only minor vice and comfort in later years. Women, jobs, professions all would flow through his life but good books and bourbon would be a constant.
Franklin “Old Main” 2013
The two weeks passed quickly and Billy headed, on foot for Franklin. The school today is small (about 1000 students) and in 1849 was only two small classrooms. But, the only real college in the area. The staff consisted of five, and all taught, administered and were the janitors. A few circuit teachers were also cycled through as the school could afford……many teachers worked for room and board in that time. Billy carried a few books and fewer clothes but was ecstatic about school and getting off the homestead. Classes were mathematics, literature, and history with five hours a day in classrooms and heavy out of class research and composition. Franklin did have a good library. Billy settled in and was a good, focused student. He found a part time job at a local newspaper (Isaac had helped of course) and was “happier than a pig in shit” as he was prone to say. Franklin would be a solid foundation for his efforts in business and law throughout his life…..the experience with guns also helped as we will see.
“Hey, Billy, what you gon’na do with your life…….goin home and shovel shit….what ?? “ , Edgar Maxooc asked him one pleasant afternoon on the Franklin green near “Old Main”. Professor Maxooc was another Dutch reprobate turned academic after years in the back woods of the Kentucky frontier. Maxooc was educated in New Jersey (Knickerbocker Dutch with roots in New Amsterdam as was Billy , was also full of adventure and he was sort of a mentor for Billy …as much as one could be in Indiana boondocks 1850……he liked the “kid” and saw a boy-man that was well suited to the future of the American West. “Professor, I am getting out of this place as soon as I can….maybe sooner. There is so much a’callin out in California and I will not miss out on the fun and opportunity”. I cannot see me sitt’in around here and dy’in of boredom while all that passes out there…..ain’t gonna happen !!”. Edgar Maxooc saw a bright, six foot seven adventurer with real potential and encouraged him to do exactly what he wanted unfettered with East conventional shackles…..life in the world away from “bumfuck” Indiana. “Billy, God bless, if I was a bit younger I’d go with you, but I’ve done mine, got my story, son……hang in a few more months, cool that Dutch temper, and I’ll help you pack and may find a small purse to help”. I think you have a future if you don’t get yourself killed along the way.
Spring of 1852 was wet and cold in the upper Midwest, Billy was to graduate in June and he was restless to get out to California. Since gold had been discovered near San Francisco thousands had streamed out and many were getting rich. Billy could not wait for graduation and saw no need to push paper and books any longer. He packed his few belongings and set out to California afoot……taking a ride at times on a wagon out of kindness and benevolence of a fellow traveler. He did have a mule once but it died along the way. Billy set out to Saint Louis and then traveled along the Oregon trail. The real claiming of the Oregon territory was made by those like Billy that made the long journey on foot across the plains and Rockies. Land hungry men and women, avid for adventure, willing to risk all for the promise of a better future. The graves along the trail are the record of the price many paid for that dream. Landmarks, all which Billy remembered all his life such as Chimney Rock above the North Platt in Nebraska and Independence Rock in Central Wyoming, became household words. The prairie schooner became the preferred vehicle for the trip replacing he heavier Conestoga wagon……the schooner could float across rivers.
William Logan Rynerson
Born 22 February 1828, Mercer County, Kentucky
Died 4 July or 26 September 1893, Las Cruses, Dona Ana County, New Mexico
SUMMARY OF ITEMS
From “Galeyville, Arizona Territory 1880” by
AC RYNERSON SUBJECT
By Donald M. Reynerson
May 01, 2006
Note: this is a summary and not a word-for-word extract. The reader is requested to read the material directly from Mr. White’s book. The book is available in libraries and “on line” at amazon.com (as of May 01, 2006).
This work has 19 entries addressing AC and one addressing Mrs. AC Reynerson. It is well referenced and a very thorough book written by an ex-engineer. He takes pains to be credible. I will forward reproduced pages from the book – will be about 20-25 pages.
It seems no full “AC” name appears in the book but Mr. White may assist us with his extensive archives and leads. He has an address (PO BOX 60) in Portal, AZ 85632.
The book was published in 2000. ISBN 1-57197-178-5
Our initial leads are supported by the info in the book addressing the store in Galeyville (actually started in a tent in Chiricahua City, AZ – adjacent to and absorbed by Galeyville) in 1879 (by inference). He also was the owner of a stage line ferrying mail and passengers from San Simon Station as we suspected. San Simon Station is 25 miles due north of Galeyville.
The book indicates that “tax avoidance” and a massive dislike for government in the territory may be the reason we found no tax records in the Cochise files. Many transactions were not recorded and/or the sale was for “$1.00 and considerations”….this means a lot of money was exchanged “off the books”.
Two major questions beg attention:
Is this our grandfather or the California AC ?
Was AC actually married while in AZ (if our AC) and where oh where did she disappear “to” ?
MAJOR POINTS FROM BOOK:
AC Born 1854.
AC had a store in the Chiricahua City area (actually on one corner of the plat to be Chiricahua City) in a tent in 1879.
There is a good generic Galeyville timeline that places the Chiricahua City plating in 1880. This was the actual initial founding of Galeyville in that Chiricahua City was a northern suburb of Galeyville by 1881. AC moved his store from here to Galeyville.
1880 Southern Pacific Railroad through San Simon.
Galeyville founded 18 November 1880
Road to San Simon built 1880
New Mexico &Arizona Stage Line (United States Mail Line) serves Galeyville – AC is the owner. 1881
May 19, 1881 AC and partners (RR and George MacLeod) sell store in Galeyville
26 April 1882 major Apache Raid on Galeyville (LOCO)
1883 Galeyville boom ends.
The timeline indicates AC had a stage line operating in 1881 and the store was established in 1879 (exact month unknown and it was first in a tent). We suspected these happenings and it seems from the book to be substantiated.
The book explains that Galey may have been exaggerating the quality of the ore extracted and may well have been “sweeting” the output with Mexican silver to attract settlers and investors. The book addresses this thoroughly. AC may well have “got wind” of this and he sold out before the “jig was up”. He had two partners in business and they may have been a part of his “grubstake” in the businesses and not William Logan (or both). His partners were RR MacLeod and his brother George. RR was a founder of Chiricahua City (26 Oct 1880).
AC Rynerson & Company was probably the FIRST commercial enterprise in the Galeyville “Corridor” and White places him there in 1879 (page 32). The Galeyville Corridor is defined as the area from Galeyville north to San Simon. One of his partners, RR Macleod, was a founder of Chiricahua City and the recording attorney of record when the plat for the settlement was filed. Page 34 also indicates AC Rynerson & Company was the earliest known business in Chiricahua City (again the forerunner of Galeyville).
In summary, AC established a tent store (see page 45) in Chiricahua City, possibly built a wood store on the plaza in Chiricahua City and then moved the store to Galeyville on the west bank of Turkey Creek…..all in the span of 2-3 years. He also established a home (another structure) in Galeyville during this period all the while establishing a stage line with US mail contracts. He seems to have a bit busy. When he took or how he took a spouse during the period also added to his busy life and to the mystery of the first Mrs. AC (if he is indeed our AC).
Immediately after the sale of the store (Pioneer Supply Store) owned by AC and the MacLeods, AC Rynerson was sued (civil action) for debts by three people (Chister, Fervent and Waring and on 20 May 1881 the three cases were tried – one day after the sale) for as total of $715 plus court costs). AC got probably $1000.00 as his share of the sale. He did not pay up but was on May 23, 1881 tried for defrauding his creditors (charges dismissed – this was a criminal action brought by the territory). See page 57.
Page 63 discusses the issue with faltering assays, AC’s sellout and the MacLeods (prominent miners). The original settlers were close and when the issues of the quality of the mines arose they got out quickly.
Page 68 discusses the stage line and indicates AC operated a “hack” line from San Simon which ran once a week. He later established the United States Mail Line Stage (also called The New Mexico and Arizona State Line). After the post office closed AC still ran the line and some mail.
A suite was brought against AC Rynerson et al (et al meant Wilkins who bought Pioneer Supply in 1881) on 10 February 1885. The suite confirms the sale of AC Rynerson & Co six (6) years after it was founded in Chiricahua City (that is 1879). See page 86.
Both AC and Mrs. AC have inscriptions in “outlaw cave” and pictures of the inscriptions are in the book – see page 208 inscriptions dated February 1881. The cave has over 400 names possibly inscribed by the visitors themselves. Most were not outlaws.
White excavated a site (site 200 in the book) and concludes it was AC’s home in Galeyville. He indicates one family member may have died in that a grave is on the site (a child by AC ??). See pages 238-246.
I can find no mention of any other Rynerson’s in the book….and that includes no mention of William Logan Reynerson(Rynerson).
The Search for AC
The NM/AZ cousin trip was basically a quest for the “lost” years of our Grandfather, A. C. Reynerson and further exploration of the adventures of William Logan Rynerson. We traveled to El Paso (TX), Las Cruses (NM), Santa Fe (NM) and Tombstone (AZ) and had a wonderful time. Lydia seems to want to possibly have another gathering in southern Arizona next summer and if so, we will certainly be there. There is a great old hotel in Bisbee, AZ we visited and all felt the younger cousins would really enjoy the area.
Don, Jack & David in Tombstone, AZ – May 2005.
Our research being incomplete, and Jack still in the lead, we feel that William L. Rynerson enticed A.C. to come to Arizona (Galeyville, AZ) where A.C. entered into business and returned home several years after. A.C. was possibly there when the shootout at the OK Corral happened in 1881 in nearby Tombstone, AZ. Much more will be discussed we are sure at the next family reunion, now scheduled for 2008. We thoroughly enjoyed the cousins’ trip and had time to visit several locations in New Mexico and Arizona.
Note that footnotes are not used in this work, but the following list of references (specific pages also included) may assist the reader in ascertaining the accuracy of this effort. The author makes no claim for precise accuracy but will confirm extensive research in Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona archives and private document collections.
Rynerarson, Arthur P. and Peter M. Rinearson, A Genealogy of the Reyniersen Family (Including Reyniersen, Reynerson, Rhinerson, Rhynearson, Rhynerson, Rinearson, and Rynerson), Bountiful, Utah : Family History Publishers, 1997. PP: 120-123.
Utley, Robert M., High Noon In Lincoln County – Violence on The Western Frontier, Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1987. PP: 53,59,156,202,207,30.41,56,64,79,147-150,161.
Keleher,William A., Violence In Lincoln County1869-1881, Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1957. PP: 41,63,77,80,85,95,99,101-104,122,127,140,158,279,306,315,316,103-104(profile).
Fulton, Maurice G. (edited by Robert N. Mullin), Maurice G. Fulton’s Hisrory of The Lincoln County War, Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 1968. PP : 51,96,101,111,152,170,202,204,346,348,356-357,415,72-73,122-123,131,167,273.
Price, Paxton P., Pioneers of the Mesilla Valley, Las Cruses, New Mexico: Yucca Tree Press, 1995. PP: 24,29,33,37,51,91,96,121,129,134,149-150,160-164,169,172,182,185,248, photo 160, 295.
Roberts, Gary L., Death Comes For The Chief Justice – The Slough-Rynerson Quarrel and Political Violence In New Mexico: Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 1990. PP
“The Assent of George Washington”, John Ferling
“Galeyville”, Brooks White
“Lions of the West – Heroes and Villains of The Westward Expansion” Robert Morgan
“Reunion: A Search For Ancestors” Ryan Littrell
“How The Dutch Came to Manhattan” Blanche McManus
“The Mevrouw Who Saved Manhattan: A Novel of New Amsterdam” Bill Greer
“A Country of Vast Designs” Robert Merry
Archives and Collections
Palace of The Governors
120 Washington Avenue
Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504
Palace of The Governors
120 Washington Avenue
Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504
New Mexico State Archives
1205 Camino Carlos Rey
Santa Fe , New Mexico 87507
Archives and Special Collections
New Mexico State University
Las Cruses, New Mexico 88003-8006
Arizona Historical Society
949 East 2nd Street
Tucson, Arizona 85719
El Paso Library
El Paso, Texas
Clayton Genealogical Library